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What Causes Endometrial Hyperplasia?

When the cells of the endometrium proliferate excessively, we say there is a endometrial hyperplasia. When endometrial hyperplasia develops, the sufferer may develop some symptoms, especially changes in menstrual periods.

What are the causes of endometrial hyperplasia?

Endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus, grows and thickens every month in preparation for pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the lining is shed. This shedding process, known as a menstrual period, is controlled by two hormones: estrogen and progesterone.

Estrogen is responsible for building up the uterine lining, and progesterone maintains and controls this buildup. Too much estrogen and not enough progesterone can cause overgrowth of the cells that line the uterus, along with excessive thickening of the endometrium. Women who take estrogen hormone therapy without taking any form of progesterone to balance the effects of estrogen are at risk for the development of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer.

Endometrial hyperplasia may also occur because of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by multiple small cysts that are in or on the uterus.

What are the risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia?

A number of factors increase the risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia. Not all women with risk factors will get endometrial hyperplasia. Risk factors for hyperplasia include:
Estrogen therapy without taking progesterone
Menopause or the years around menopause
Missed menstrual periods
Polycystic ovary syndrome 

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