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Can Primary Dysmenorrhea Progress to Adenomyosis?

Dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain, often cramping and concentrated in the lower abdomen, and is a common condition in young women. Dysmenorrhea can be categorized into primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is dysmenorrhea without apparent pelvic organic disease. Secondary dysmenorrhea is dysmenorrhea caused by pelvic organic disease.


So, can primary dysmenorrhea develop into adenomyosis?

In general, primary dysmenorrhea does not directly progress to adenomyosis, but it may have indirect effects.

Primary dysmenorrhea, also known as functional dysmenorrhea, is the most common type of dysmenorrhea, accounting for more than 90% of all dysmenorrhea. It usually begins in adolescence and may diminish or disappear with age. 

Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by factors such as uterine contractions and endocrine disorders during menstruation. Excessive endometrial rejection leads to excessive contraction of the uterine muscles, which causes pain. It is associated with a variety of factors, such as endocrine disorders, abnormal uterine contractions, cervical factors, mental factors, etc. However, primary dysmenorrhea has no organic lesions in the reproductive organs. 

Therefore, primary dysmenorrhea usually does not develop into adenomyosis.

Dysmenorrhea caused by adenomyosis is secondary. Adenomyosis is mainly caused by invading cells from the endometrium into the myometrium. The main symptoms of this condition include heavy menstrual periods, dysmenorrhea, painful intercourse, and infertility. The pathogenesis of adenomyosis has yet to be fully understood. It may be related to factors such as high estrogen levels, chronic stress, multiple pregnancies, deliveries, etc., which may lead to the cells of the endometrium invading the myometrium and forming foci.

It is important to note that primary dysmenorrhea does not develop into adenomyosis. However, if a woman has primary dysmenorrhea, she may also develop adenomyosis. That is, the two conditions are likely to co-exist. Then, her menstrual cramps will worsen in this case. Moreover, adenomyosis can trigger long-term chronic blood loss, causing anemia in the patient, and can even cause infertility in women.

Therefore, patients who are determined to have adenomyosis should be treated aggressively. If the patient's dysmenorrhea is mild, she can take some birth control pills or progesterone, which will cause the ectopic uterine lining in the body to atrophy, to control the development of this disease.

Patients also use some medicines to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis for treatment, such as the traditional Chinese medicine Fuyan Pill. It can eliminate menstrual cramps and other symptoms without causing side effects to the body. In addition, the condition can be controlled by placing a Mirena ring in the uterine cavity to release progesterone.

If the condition is more serious and the above measures fail to achieve significant pain relief or treatment effect, timely surgical treatment is needed for adenomyosis patients who do not want to have their uterus removed and cannot tolerate the side effects of conservative treatment, uterine-conserving surgery is the right choice. 

It can preserve fertility and cure adenomyosis without removing the uterus. If the patient is older, has no reproductive requirements, and the lesions are more diffuse, the patient can undergo a hysterectomy under the supervision of a physician to eradicate the cause of the disease completely.

Women should also keep warm and avoid getting cold in their everyday lives. Avoid eating a lot of cold and raw food; they can eat more food rich in protein, vitamins, and other nutrients, such as eggs, tomatoes, etc., which helps to supplement the body's required nutrients. 

Adhere to a regular schedule and ensure enough sleep. Do full-body aerobic exercise weekly. You can choose yoga, jogging, and so on. Moderate exercise for menstrual cramps is also a relief treatment, but do not challenge your limits to do strenuous exercise.

Recommended Readings:

Adenomyosis: What Should I Eat?

Mirena IUD for Adenomyosis: Is It Possible For Every Patient

Will Having Adenomyosis Make You Age Faster?

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