Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease caused by the endometrial planting of active endometrial cells outside the endometrium. The specific etiology of this disease is not completely understood, and its most common symptom is dysmenorrhea. In patients with endometriosis, the infertility rate is up to 40% to 50%. According to statistics, about 10% of women have endometriosis with varying degrees. Usually, the herbal medicine Fuyan Pill can be used to treat endometriosis, which can dispel diseased tissues, improve blood circulation and remove blood stasis.
On November 10, 2020, Ronald Chandler's team of Michigan State University published a research paper, named ARID1A Mutations Promote P300-Dependent Endometrial Invasion through Super-Enhancer Hyperacetylation, on the Cell Reports magazine, a sub-publication of Cell Reports.
The study identified potential genetic targets for the treatment of severe endometriosis, which is expected to develop better treatments for women with severe endometriosis. The team focused on a particular group of patients with endometriosis, all of whom have a mutation in the ARID1A gene that makes them more aggressive and more painful.
Endometriosis, especially the one associated with mutations in the ARID1A gene, can debilitate many women and often result in infertility. This can seriously affect the life quality of patients as well as their ability to live and work in daily life. However, there is no good non-hormonal therapy for this type of endometriosis, and hormone therapy is prone to drug resistance.
Deletion of ARID1A gene will lead to excessive acetylation of H3K27, increase chromatin access, and cause hyperactivity in super enhancer, which in turn will enhance the expression of SERPINE1/PAI-1 gene, promote the invasion of endometrial epithelial cells, and lead to endometriosis.
These findings suggest that ARID1A can generally prevent hyperactivity in super enhancer. When the ARID1A mutation is lost, the hyperactive super enhancer will cause cells in the uterus to invade the uterus and form deep implants, causing symptoms such as severe menstrual cramps.
ARID1A and P300 are co-located in super enhancers. In mutant endometrial epithelial cells of ARID1A, the genetic or pharmacological inhibition of P300 can limit the invasion of endometrial epithelial cells, and induce the apoptosis of epithelial cells by saving the acetylation of super enhancers.
Based on these findings, the team tested inhibitors targeting P300, which can be used to inhibit P300, thereby inhibiting the super enhancers and counteracting the effects of mutations in the ARID1A gene. The inhibitors are a new type of treatment that controls how genes are expressed, called epigenetic therapy, which could be far more effective than current methods like surgical treatments, hormone treatments and painkillers.
In summary, the study revealed the pathogenesis of endometriosis caused by ARID1A mutation. It also found that targeted inhibition for P300 can counteract the effects of ARID1A mutation and treat endometriosis more effectively than current treatment methods.
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