When women have a pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis, and other gynecological inflammation or reproductive tract infection, the fallopian tube is prone to partial or complete adhesions and blockages, resulting in the closure of the fimbria part, resulting in infertility. The causes are mainly the following:
1. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease(PID)
The incidence rate is about 10-13 per 1000 women aged 15-19, while it increases to 20 per 1000 women aged 20-24. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases has led to an increase in the incidence of PID. The incidence of infertility increased in women with IUD and history of curettage, and the rates of infertility caused by primary, secondary, and tertiary PID were 12%, 23%, and 54%, respectively.
Salpingitis is the most common cause of blocked fallopian tubes. Including salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, etc., inflammation affects the lumen of the fallopian tube and the surrounding tissues, makes the lumen narrow, the lumen epithelial fiber hair defect, causes scars, fibrosis, adhesion of the fallopian tube, or affects the normal peristalsis of the fallopian tube, thus affecting the transportation of fertilized eggs.
3. Infectious abortion
It is another major risk factor of tubal infertility. Preoperative examination includes bacterial vaginosis and cervicitis. If necessary, culture and serological examination should be carried out. The test results should be known before the operation, and antibiotics should be routinely applied after abortion for prevention.
Inflammation / adhesion factors
Although it is controversial whether the potential small or slight endometriosis (stage 1 or stage 2) causes infertility or not at present, the main occurrence of pre-inflammatory state can lead to adhesive diseases and low fertility; stage 3 or stage 4 endometriosis causes strong anatomical distortion, there was no doubt about its impact on infertility.
2. Tissue trauma caused by surgery
It can also lead to pre-inflammatory state or even adhesion. The incidence of postoperative adhesions was about 75%. Common laparoscopy could not prevent postoperative adhesions. The application of adhesion barrier (such as anti-adhesion membrane) can reduce the incidence of adhesion by 50% on average. The removal of adhesion will increase the rate of infertility. If the condition persists and aggravates, assisted reproductive embryo transfer (IVF-ET) may be the only option.
3. Congenital dysplasia of fallopian tube
If there are congenital pathological changes, fine distortion, or dysfunction, and so on in the fallopian tube, it can also trigger blocked fallopian tubes.
4. Gynecological tumor
The gynecological tumor is also one of the causes of blocked fallopian tubes, such as a chocolate cyst or adenomyosis, which directly compresses the fallopian tube in the form of protruding tumor body, making it adhere to the surrounding tissue, leading to blocked fallopian tubes.
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